Archive for the ‘Webserver Software’ Category

Live Streaming from a Raspberry Pi via Nginx

Wednesday, January 10th, 2024

I had a Raspberry Pi 3B with the PiCam 2 that stopped working. To make the video better, I needed a shroud to prevent picking up light in the room when it was dark outside and ultimately, three PiCam 2’s died while working with that shroud. I ordered a PiCam 3 the other day to see if I could get it to work with my Pi 3B, and alas, it wouldn’t work. So, I used a 2GB Raspberry Pi 4.

To set up streaming in nginx:

In your main nginx.conf you need:

rtmp {
    server {
        listen some_ip_address:1935;
        application live {
            live on;
            interleave on;

            hls on;
            hls_path /tmp/hls;
            hls_fragment 5s;

Then in your site config:

    location /live/ {
        alias /tmp/hls/;

Your Raspberry Pi should run a recent image. You’ll need to install rpicam-apps to replace rpicam-apps-lite which is installed by default:

sudo apt-get install rpicam-apps

The script you’ll create a script called livevid:



while [ 1 == 1 ]; do
    rpicam-vid -v 0 -n -t 0 -g 10 --bitrate 2500000 --inline --width 960 --height 540 --framerate 30 --codec libav --libav-format flv --libav-audio 0 --audio-bitrate 8600 --av-sync 200000 -n -o 'rtmp://url_of_nginx/live/cam' --awb daylight


And your crontab entry (crontab -e)

@reboot cd /home/user;/usr/bin/nohup /home/user/livevid &

With this, you can at least alter the parameters to make the image quality better, or use less bandwidth.

Apache2 – Using mod_rewrite and RewriteMap with a Python program to georedirect

Friday, August 2nd, 2013

Almost every machine we run has geoip loaded and clients are able to access the country code of a surfer without having to write too much code. One client decided that they wanted to redirect users from certain states to another page to deal with sales tax and shipping issues but had a mixture of perl scripts and php scripts running their shopping cart.

Having done something very similar using mod_rewrite and rewritemap with a text file, the simple solution appeared to be a short Python script to interface with the GeoIPLite data and use mod_rewrite.

In our VirtualHost config, we put:

RewriteMap statecode prg:/var/www/rewritemap/tools/

To set up our Python environment, we did:

virtualenv /var/www/rewritemap
cd /var/www/rewritemap
source bin/activate
git clone
cd geoip-api-python
python install
cd ..
mkdir tools
cd tools
wget -N
gunzip GeoLiteCity.dat.gz


import sys

import GeoIP
gi ="/var/www/rewritemap/tools/GeoLiteCity.dat", \

gir = gi.record_by_name(sys.stdin.readline())
if gir != None:
  if gir['country_code'] == 'US':
    STATE = gir['region']

print STATE

Then, in our .htaccess we put:

RewriteEngine on
RewriteCond ${statecode:%{REMOTE_ADDR}|NONE} ^(PA|DC|CO)$
RewriteRule .* /specialpage/ [R=302,L]

REMOTE_ADDR handling with Varnish and Load Balancers

Sunday, March 18th, 2012

While working with the ever present spam issue on this blog, I’ve started to have issues with many of the plugins not using the correct IP address lookup. While each plugin author can be contacted, trackbacks and comments through WordPress still have the Varnish server’s IP address.

In our vcl, in vcl_recv, we put the following:

       if (req.http.x-forwarded-for) {
           set req.http.X-Forwarded-For =
               req.http.X-Forwarded-For + ", " + client.ip;
       } else {
           set req.http.X-Forwarded-For = client.ip;

and in our wp-config.php we put:

$temp_ip = explode(',', isset($_SERVER['HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR'])
  (isset($_SERVER['HTTP_CLIENT_IP']) ?
$remote_addr = trim($temp_ip[0]);
$_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'] = preg_replace('/[^0-9.:]/', '', $remote_addr );

While we only need to check HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR in our case, this does handle things if you are behind one of a number of other proxy servers and corrects $_SERVER[‘REMOTE_ADDR’]. The ticket that was opened and later closed which would have made it very easy to overload a get_ip function says it should be fixed in the server.

in /wp-includes/comment.php:

 * We use REMOTE_ADDR here directly. If you are behind a proxy, you should ensure
 * that it is properly set, such as in wp-config.php, for your environment.
 * See {@link}

You can also use mod_rpaf if you’re using Apache which will fix this through an Apache module.

Two WordPress Plugins – cd34-social and cd34-header

Wednesday, November 23rd, 2011

I’ve uploaded two plugins that were written for this site.

The first one is cd34-social which uses Async Javascript to load the Google+, Twitter and Facebook social media buttons. Unlike most of the other plugins, this does use Async Javascript so the buttons will appear last, after the rest of the page has loaded. Since it is loaded Async, your page loading speed should be slightly improved.

The second plugin adds the OpenGraph meta tags for Facebook and the link rel/publisher tags for Google+. There is a settings dialog that allows you to set three fields that are user customized.

cd34-social: or, through the plugin directory: cd34-social.

cd34-header: or, through the plugin directory: cd34-header.

Abort mdadm consistency check

Tuesday, June 8th, 2010

One of our client systems has a Raid 1 setup using two 1 Terabyte drives. Last night, Debian’s consistency check launched, but, his system was doing some heavy disk IO due to some scripts that were being processed and the system was estimating close to 1000 hours to complete the check.

md3 : active raid1 sdb8[1] sda8[0]
      962108608 blocks [2/2] [UU]
      [===>.................]  check = 15.1% (145325952/962108608) finish=60402.6min speed=224K/sec

To abandon the check, we issued:

echo idle > /sys/block/md3/md/sync_action

Which allowed the machine to skip the rest of the test. While I don’t like disabling the checks, we’ll reschedule this one to do the check after they are done doing their work.

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