Professional MySQL Developer?
Once in a while I get to troubleshoot problems on machines specifically with MySQL. Sometimes that task is difficult because the vendor written code has been Zend Encoded. Perhaps in the name of performance, possibly to protect his code, or, to prevent me from seeing just how bad his code is. Diagnosing MySQL issues forensically requires a few scripts, patience, and time.
This time, I modified /etc/mysql/my.cnf on two machines and added the following:
log = /var/log/mysql/mysql.log
This gave me three things. A full log of all queries executed. I have written a small program to normalize the queries and sort them so I can focus on the queries that take 90% of the time. I then get queries that take more than 10 seconds — which can be altered by adjusting long_query_time, and, I get any query that doesn’t use an index. Usually I will focus on the unindexed queries as those generally cause the problems. Very few people understand the impact of table locks and that usually is where most problems occur.
The first example comes from an application which claims to be able to support 100,000 visitors per day. Perhaps with enough hardware behind it can, but, in its current state, on a quad core xeon, about 40,000 per day is about all they can push.
Where do we start? So few lines, so many errors.
CREATE TABLE `iplog` (
`ip` varchar(255) NOT NULL default ”,
`pid` bigint(20) NOT NULL default ‘0’,
`viewed` varchar(255) NOT NULL default ”,
`locked` tinyint(1) NOT NULL default ‘0’,
PRIMARY KEY (`ip`,`pid`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
The above schema replicates functionality in the prior version of the software. The old version of the system didn’t do things this way, so, I am unsure why the developer chose to alter his habits and break things in so many ways.
IPv4 currently only takes 15 spaces. char(15) would have been more efficient taking 16 bytes to store a 15 digit IP address including the ‘.’. Even varchar(15) would have taken 20 bytes to store the 15 digit IP address. But varchar(255) just takes the cake. The proper way to store an IPv4 address is unsigned int. Even barring the fact that varchar(15) or char(15) would have been more space efficient, using an unsigned int allows the BTree that MyISAM creates to be a lot more balanced.
Then, lets add an index to the IP field. Knowing that indexes space pad keys to their full length, the Mysql index file on the disk is actually larger than the data file itself.
I might object to the use of InnoDB on a table with questionable value. The overhead for InnoDB on data that is valuable only for a few minutes seems like overkill, but, we’ll give some credit for data integrity.
That really wasn’t the worst offender. Another application written by another professional programmer included roughly 80 queries to display one page. Once you dig deeper into the code, you find queries like this:
# Query_time: 0 Lock_time: 0 Rows_sent: 1 Rows_examined: 984
SELECT count(VID) AS total_videos FROM video WHERE type=’public’ AND ( keyword LIKE ‘%keyword%’ OR keyword LIKE ‘%keyword%’ OR keyword LIKE ‘%keyword%’ OR keyword LIKE ‘%keyword%’);
First, VID is auto_increment, not null. This particular query causes mysql to scan the results from the above query, and the verify VID to see if it is null for any row. Due to the table construction, it cannot be null, so, SELECT count(*) would have been faster.
Second, they disassembled the input, wrapped it in % so that they could do floating matches rather than using a fulltext index which would have been much faster. As the table only has 984 rows now, once they start growing the site, they’ll start to see more performance issues. A fulltext index would allow for quite a bit more growth.
While the following query isn’t optimizable, the results could be cached.
# Query_time: 0 Lock_time: 0 Rows_sent: 5 Rows_examined: 155
SELECT * from channel ORDER BY rand() LIMIT 5;
As a result of the ORDER BY rand(), MySQL will need to do a full table scan each and every time this query is called. In this case, twice for each pageload.
Another particularly interesting query:
select tradeId from trades2 where tradeDomain = ‘noref’;
Taken on its own, you can see where tradeDomain may have been omitted in the indexes. However, the table name gives you some indication of the mess. Here’s another query that ran without an index:
select tradeId from trades28 where tradeDomain = ‘noref’;
There are a total of 50 trades tables. This corresponds to the number of ‘sites’ in the sites table. It seems our developer couldn’t quite figure out how to index on two fields.
In the last 4 hours, the unindexed queries from this one site have resulted in the following:
-rw-r—– 1 mysql adm 10869491 2009-03-09 10:53 mysql-slow.log
Roughly 54000 queries in 4 hours that had no index. Compared to yesterday’s logs when I added a number of indices, it is a world of difference.
However, fixing the issues in the code is still more expensive than throwing hardware at the problem. The problem you run into with using hardware as a crutch is that eventually you reach an impasse where the problem must be fixed, or, you face other bottlenecks.
Based on a few changes made by adding indexes, the load on those two machines has dropped considerably. Each of the vendors that wrote the systems that I analyzed claim to handle well more traffic than either of the machines is currently handling. The claims were written on their web sites roughly 3 years ago, and the machines that they are currently running on a much newer and much more powerful than they were at the time the software was installed.
One of the software vendors is out of the business due to too many support issues. One software vendor continues churning out bad code and getting people to pay $600 for it. The third developer disappeared and was replaced by a team of two programmers who appear to know what they are doing and are releasing version 5.0 (the current, latest version is 3.1) ‘soon’. I know it will be soon because their web site, last updated in July 2008, says they are in limited beta.
I guess it is time to order some hardware.